The apostrophe has three uses:
1) to form possessives of nouns
2) to show the omission of letters
3) to indicate certain plurals of lowercase letters.
Apostrophes are NOT
used for possessive pronouns or for noun plurals, including acronyms. Forming possessives of nouns
To see if you need to make a possessive, turn the phrase around and make it an "of the..." phrase. For example:
the boy's hat = the hat of the boy
three days' journey = journey of three days
If the noun after "of" is a building, an object, or a piece of furniture, then no apostrophe is needed!
room of the hotel = hotel room
door of the car = car door
leg of the table = table leg
Once you've determined whether you need to make a possessive, follow these rules to create one.
• add 's to the singular form of the word (even if it ends in -s): Showing omission of letters
the owner's car • add 's to the plural forms that do not end in -s:
the children's game • add ' to the end of plural nouns that end in -s:
the geese's honking
houses' roofs • add 's to the end of compound words:
three friends' letters
my brother-in-law's money • add 's to the last noun to show joint possession of an object:
Todd and Anne's apartment
Apostrophes are used in contractions. A contraction is a word (or set of numbers) in which one or more letters (or numbers) have been omitted. The apostrophe shows this omission. Contractions are common in speaking and in informal writing. To use an apostrophe to create a contraction, place an apostrophe where the omitted letter(s) would go. Here are some examples:
Forming plurals of lowercase letters
don't = do not
I'm = I am
he'll = he will
who's = who is
shouldn't = should not
didn't = did not
could've= could have (NOT "could of"!)
'60 = 1960
Apostrophes are used to form plurals of letters that appear in lowercase; here the rule appears to be more typographical than grammatical, e.g. "three ps" versus "three p's." To form the plural of a lowercase letter, place 's
after the letter. There is no need for apostrophes indicating a plural on capitalized letters, numbers, and symbols (though keep in mind that some editors, teachers, and professors still prefer them). Here are some examples:
Don't use apostrophes for possessive pronouns or for noun plurals.
p's and q's = a phrase indicating politeness, possibly from "mind your pleases and thankyous"?
three Macintosh G4s = three of the Macintosh G4
Nita's mother constantly stressed minding one's p's and q's.
many &s = many ampersands
There are two G4s currently used in the writing classrom.
the 1960s = the years in decade from 1960 to 1969
That printed page has too many &s on it.
The 1960s were a time of great social unrest.
Apostrophes should not be used with possessive pronouns because possessive pronouns already show possession -- they don't need an apostrophe. His, her, its, my, yours, ours
are all possessive pronouns. Here are some examples:
wrong: his' book
correct: his book
wrong: The group made it's decision.
correct: The group made its decision.
(Note: Its and it's are not the same thing. It's is a contraction for "it is" and its is a possesive pronoun meaning "belonging to it." It's raining out= it is raining out. A simple way to remember this rule is the fact that you don't use an apostrophe for the possesives his or hers, so don't do it with its!)
wrong: a friend of yours'
correct: a friend of yours
wrong: She waited for three hours' to get her ticket.
correct: She waited for three hours to get her ticket.
التوقيع لقوي ثامر