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 Connecting adverbs/Lesson

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مُساهمةموضوع: Connecting adverbs/Lesson   السبت مارس 22, 2008 2:11 pm

Connecting adverbs
Connecting adverbs are often used to show the relationship between the ideas expressed in a clause and the ideas expressed in a preceding clause, sentence or paragraph. In the following examples, the connecting adverbs are printed in bold type.
e.g. I wanted to study; however, I was too tired.
We knew what to expect. Therefore, we were not surprised at what happened.

In the first example, the connecting adverb however shows that there is a conflict between the idea expressed in the clause I was too tired and the idea expressed in the preceding clause I wanted to study. In the second example, the connecting adverb therefore shows that there is a cause and effect relationship between the idea expressed in the sentence we knew what to expect, and the clause we were not surprised at what happened.

Connecting adverbs are similar to conjunctions in that both may be used to introduce clauses. However, the use of connecting adverbs differs from that of conjunctions in the ways indicated below.

a. Stress and punctuation
In spoken English, a connecting adverb is usually given more stress than a conjunction. Correspondingly, in formal written English a connecting adverb is usually separated from the rest of a clause by commas, whereas a conjunction is usually not separated from the rest of a clause by commas.

In addition, in formal written English a clause containing a connecting adverb is often separated from a preceding clause by a semicolon; whereas a clause beginning with a conjunction is usually not separated from a preceding clause by a semicolon.
e.g. I wanted to study; however, I was too tired.
I wanted to study, but I was too tired.
In the first example, the connecting adverb however is preceded by a semicolon, and is separated from I was too tired by a comma. In the second example, the conjunction but is preceded by a comma rather than by a semicolon, and is not separated from I was too tired by a comma.

It should be noted that when no conjunction is present, a semicolon may be used to connect two main clauses. For example:
The clouds dispersed; the moon rose.
In this example, the two main clauses the clouds dispersed and the moon rose are connected by a semicolon rather than by a conjunction.

b. Connecting adverbs used to connect sentences
Unlike conjunctions, connecting adverbs may be used in formal English to show the relationship between ideas expressed in separate sentences. For example:
The wind was strong. Thus, I felt very cold.
In this example, the connecting adverb thus shows that there is a cause and effect relationship between the ideas expressed by the two sentences the wind was strong and I felt very cold.

In informal English, coordinate conjunctions are sometimes used to show the relationship between the ideas expressed in separate sentences. For example:
The wind was strong. And I felt very cold.
However, this use of coordinate conjunctions is considered to be grammatically incorrect in formal English.

c. Position in a clause
A subordinate conjunction must usually be placed at the beginning of a clause. However, a connecting adverb may be placed at the beginning, in the middle, or at the end of a clause. This is illustrated below.
e.g. His visit was unexpected. Nevertheless, I was pleased to see him.
His visit was unexpected. I was, nevertheless, pleased to see him.
His visit was unexpected. I was pleased to see him, nevertheless.

d. Examples of connecting adverbs
The following are examples of words which may be used as connecting adverbs. Each connecting adverb is followed by its meaning and an example of its use.

Connecting Adverbs
accordingly: so He was very persuasive; accordingly, I did what he asked.
also: in addition She is my neighbor; she is also my best friend.
besides: in addition I like the job. Besides, I need the money.
consequently: so She had a fever; consequently, she stayed at home.
furthermore: in addition You should stop smoking. Furthermore, you should do it at once!
hence: for that reason He is a good friend. Hence, I was not embarrassed to ask him for help.
however: but We wanted to arrive on time; however, we were delayed by traffic.
likewise: in addition The region is beautiful. Likewise, the climate is excellent.
moreover: in addition She is very intelligent; moreover, she is very ambitious.
nevertheless: but They are proud. Nevertheless, I like them.
nonetheless: but The ascent was dangerous. Nonetheless, he decided to attempt it.
otherwise: if not, or else We should consult them; otherwise, they may be upset.
still: but It is a long way to the beach. Still, it is a fine day to go swimming.
then: 1. next, afterwards We went shopping, then we had lunch.
2. so If you are sure, then I must believe you.
therefore: for that reason I was nervous; therefore, I could not do my best.
thus: so, in this way He travelled as quickly as possible. Thus, he reached Boston the next day.
As indicated in the following table, several connecting adverbs have meanings similar to those of the conjunctions and, but or so.

Connecting Adverbs with meanings similar to And, But and So
Similar to AndSimilar to ButSimilar to So
also however accordingly
besides nevertheless consequently
furthermore nonetheless hence
likewise still therefore
moreover thus


5. Parallel construction
The repetition of a particular grammatical construction is often referred to as parallel construction. This is illustrated in the following examples.
e.g. I am neither angry nor excited.
The resort contains tennis courts, swimming pools and a snack bar .
In the first example, the two phrases neither angry and nor excited exhibit parallel construction. In the second example, the three phrases tennis courts, swimming pools and a snack bar exhibit parallel construction.

In English, it is considered preferable to use parallel construction whenever parallel ideas are expressed.

Thus, whenever possible, parallel construction should be employed when correlative conjunctions are used. In the following example, the correlative conjunctions are printed in bold type.
e.g. Incorrect: He has both a good education, and he has good work habits.
Corrected: He has both a good education and good work habits.
The first sentence is incorrect, since both and and are followed by different grammatical constructions. Both is followed by the phrase a good education; whereas and is followed by the clause he has good work habits. The second sentence has been corrected by changing the clause he has good work habits into the phrase good work habits.

The following example illustrates the use of parallel construction with the correlative conjunctions neither ... nor.
e.g. Incorrect: She turned neither right nor to the left.
Corrected: She turned neither right nor left.
or Corrected: She turned neither to the right nor to the left.
The first sentence is incorrect, since neither is followed by a single word; whereas nor is followed by a prepositional phrase. The second sentence has been corrected by changing the phrase to the left to the word left. Alternatively, as shown in the third sentence, two prepositional phrases can be used.


Parallel construction should also be used when listing a series of ideas. For example:
Incorrect: The hotel is charming, well-situated and is not expensive.
Corrected: The hotel is charming, well-situated and inexpensive.
The first sentence is incorrect, since the first two items in the series, charming and well-situated, are adjectives, whereas the last item, is not expensive, contains a verb. The second sentence has been corrected by changing is not expensive to the adjective inexpensive.

The following is another example of the use of parallel construction when listing a series of ideas.
e.g. Incorrect: I like to ski, skating and swimming.
Corrected: I like skiing, skating and swimming.
The first sentence is incorrect, since the first item in the series, to ski, is an infinitive, whereas the second and third items, skating and swimming, are gerunds. The second sentence has been corrected by changing the infinitive to ski to the gerund skiing.

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Connecting adverbs/Lesson
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