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 present perfect/form

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تاريخ التسجيل : 25/02/2008

مُساهمةموضوع: present perfect/form   الجمعة مارس 21, 2008 10:32 am

The English Present Perfect tense is used to express actions which have already been completed, or perfected, at the time of speaking or writing. In the examples given below, the verbs in the Present Perfect tense are underlined.
e.g. I have done the work.
She has answered half the questions.

In the first example, the use of the Present Perfect tense emphasizes the fact that, at the time of speaking or writing, the work has already been completed. In the second example, the use of the Present Perfect indicates that, at the time of speaking or writing, half the questions have been answered.


2. Formation of the present perfect: Regular verbs
The Present Perfect tense of any English verb is formed from the Simple Present of the auxiliary to have, followed by what is generally referred to as the past participle of the verb.

Most English verbs form the past participle in a regular, predictable manner. These verbs are commonly referred to as regular verbs.

The past participle of a regular English verb is formed by adding the ending ed to the bare infinitive of the verb. For instance, the past participle of the verb to work is worked.

Thus, the Present Perfect tense of the verb to work is conjugated as follows:


I have worked
you have worked
he has worked
she has worked
it has worked
we have worked
they have worked
The following contractions are often used in spoken English:


Without ContractionsWith Contractions
I haveI've
you haveyou've
he hashe's
she hasshe's
it hasit's
we havewe've
they havethey've
It should be noted that the contractions for he has, she has and it has are the same as the contractions for he is, she is and it is.




3. Spelling rules for adding ed to form the past participle
Some regular verbs change their spelling when the ending ed is added to form the past participle.

a. Verbs ending in a silent e
When a regular verb ends in a silent e, only the letter d must be added in order to form the past participle. For example:

InfinitivePast Participle
to closeclosed
to movemoved
to pleasepleased
to receivereceived
b. Verbs ending in y
When a regular verb ends in y immediately preceded by a consonant, the y is changed to i before the ending ed is added. For example:

InfinitivePast Participle
to studystudied
to relyrelied
to carrycarried
However, when a regular verb ends in y immediately preceded by a vowel, the y is not changed before the ending ed is added. For example:

InfinitivePast Participle
to playplayed
to conveyconveyed
to enjoyenjoyed


c. Verbs ending in a single consonant preceded by a single vowel
The rules concerning the doubling of final consonants which apply when adding the ending ing to form the present participle also apply when adding the ending ed to form the past participle.

Thus, when a one-syllable verb ends in a single consonant other than w, x or y immediately preceded by a single vowel, the final consonant must be doubled before the ending ed is added to form the past participle. In the following examples, the consonants which have been doubled are underlined. For example:

InfinitivePast Participle
to rubrubbed
to trimtrimmed
to planplanned
to stopstopped
When a verb of more than one syllable ends in a single consonant other than w, x or y immediately preceded by a single vowel, the final consonant is doubled before the ending ed only when the last syllable of the verb is pronounced with the heaviest stress. In the following examples, the syllables pronounced with the heaviest stress are underlined. For example:

InfinitivePast Participle
to controlcontrolled
to inferinferred
to occuroccurred
to permitpermitted
to fastenfastened
to orderordered
to focusfocused
to limitlimited
In the first four examples, the last syllable of the verb is pronounced with the heaviest stress, and the final consonant is doubled before ed is added. In the last four examples, the first syllable of the verb is pronounced with the heaviest stress, and the final consonant is not doubled before ed is added.

The final consonants w, x and y are never doubled when the ending ed is added. For example:

InfinitivePast Participle
to followfollowed
to boxboxed
to portrayportrayed
It should also be noted that final consonants immediately preceded by two vowels are not doubled when the ending ed is added. For example:


InfinitivePast Participle
to greetgreeted
to rainrained
to soaksoaked
to treattreated


4. Pronunciation of the ed ending
The ending ed is usually not pronounced as a separate syllable. For instance, in each of the following examples, both the bare infinitive and the past participle consist of one syllable. For example:

Bare InfinitivePast Participle
puffpuffed
workworked
missmissed
watchwatched
However, when the ending ed is added to verbs which end in d or t, the ed ending of the past participle is pronounced as a separate syllable. The reason for this is that the sounds of d and t are so similar to the sound of the ed ending, that the ending must be pronounced as a separate syllable in order to be heard clearly.

In each of the following examples, the bare infinitive consists of one syllable; whereas the past participle consists of two syllables. For example:

Bare InfinitivePast Participle
addadded
landlanded
hunthunted
waitwaited
Similarly, when d is added to verbs ending in a silent e preceded by d or t, the final ed of the past participle is pronounced as a separate syllable. In each of the following examples, the bare infinitive consists of one syllable; whereas the past participle consists of two syllables. For example:

Bare InfinitivePast Participle
fadefaded
glideglided
citecited
notenoted

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present perfect/form
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