أفـــضـــل البشــــــائر..من بوســــــــعادة

هذا المنتدى يهتم بالعلم والتدريس .المعلوماتية.الترفيه.وكل مافيه فائدة
 
الرئيسيةالبوابةاليوميةمكتبة الصورس .و .جالتسجيلقائمة الاعضاءالمجموعاتبحـثدخولالمكتـــبة

شاطر | 
 

 The formation of the present co,tinuous/ Lesson

استعرض الموضوع السابق استعرض الموضوع التالي اذهب الى الأسفل 
كاتب الموضوعرسالة
legouithameur
رئيس حكومة المنتدى
رئيس حكومة المنتدى


عدد الرسائل : 1146
العمر : 54
تاريخ التسجيل : 25/02/2008

مُساهمةموضوع: The formation of the present co,tinuous/ Lesson   الجمعة مارس 21, 2008 9:36 am

The Present Continuous tense of any verb is formed from the Simple Present of the auxiliary to be, followed by what is generally referred to as the present participle of the verb.

The present participle of a verb is formed by adding ing to the bare infinitive. For instance, the present participle of the verb to work is working.

Thus, the Present Continuous tense of the verb to work is conjugated as follows:


I am working
you are working
he is working
she is working
it is working
we are working
they are working


3. Spelling rules for the formation of the present participle
Some verbs change their spelling when the ending ing is added to form the present participle.

a. Verbs ending in a silent e
When a verb ends in a silent e, the silent e is dropped before the ending ing is added. For example:


InfinitivePresent Participle
to close closing
to dine dining
to leave leaving
to move moving
However, when a verb ends in an e which is not silent, the final e is not dropped before the ending ing is added. For example:

InfinitivePresent Participle
to be being
to see seeing
b. Verbs ending in ie
When a verb ends in ie, the ie is changed to y before the ending ing is added. For example:

InfinitivePresent Participle
to die dying
to lie lying
When a verb ends in y, no change is made before the ending is added. For example:

InfinitivePresent Participle
to fly flying
to play playing


c. One-syllable verbs ending in a single consonant preceded by a single vowel
Except in the case of the final consonants w, x and y, when a one-syllable verb ends in a single consonant preceded by a single vowel, the final consonant must be doubled before the ending ing is added. The reason for this is to reflect the fact that the pronunciation of the single vowel does not change when the ending ing is added.

English vowels have a variety of pronunciations. For instance, each English vowel has two contrasting pronunciations, which are sometimes referred to as short and long. Vowels which are followed by two consonants, and vowels which are followed by a single consonant at the end of a word, are generally pronounced short. In contrast, vowels which are followed by a single consonant followed by another vowel are generally pronounced long.

In the table below, the underlined vowels in the left-hand column are pronounced short; whereas the underlined vowels in the right-hand column are pronounced long. For example:

Short VowelsLong Vowels
fat fate
tapping taping
let delete
win wine
filling filing
not note
hopping hoping
flutter flute
Thus, in the case of most one-syllable verbs ending in a single consonant preceded by a single vowel, the vowel is pronounced short. In order to reflect the fact that the vowel is also pronounced short in the corresponding present participle, except in the case of w, x and y, the final consonant must be doubled before the ending ing is added.

In the following examples, the consonants which have been doubled are
underlined. For example:

InfinitivePresent Participle
to nod nodding
to dig digging
to run running
to clap clapping
to set setting
When a verb ends in w, x or y preceded by a single vowel, the final consonant is not doubled before the ending is added. For example:

InfinitivePresent Participle
to draw drawing
to fix fixing
to say saying
It should also be noted that when a verb ends in a single consonant preceded by two vowels, the final consonant is not doubled before the ending is added. The reason for this is that two vowels together are generally pronounced long. For example:

InfinitivePresent Participle
to rain raining
to read reading
to meet meeting
to soak soaking
d. Verbs of more than one syllable which end in a single consonant preceded by a single vowel
When a verb of more than one syllable ends in a single consonant other than w, x or y preceded by a single vowel, the final consonant is doubled to form the present participle only when the last syllable of the verb is pronounced with the heaviest stress.

For instance, in the following examples, the last syllables of the verbs have the heaviest stress, and the final consonants are doubled to form the present participles. In these examples, the syllables pronounced with the heaviest stress are underlined. For example:

InfinitivePresent Participle
to expel expelling
to begin beginning
to occur occurring
to omit omitting
When a verb of more than one syllable ends in w, x or y, the final consonant is not doubled before the ending ing is added. In the following examples, the syllables pronounced with the heaviest stress are underlined. For example:

InfinitivePresent Participle
to allow allowing
to affix affixing
to convey conveying
When the last syllable of a verb is not pronounced with the heaviest stress, the final consonant is usually not doubled to form the present participle. For instance, in the following examples, the last syllables of the verbs do not have the heaviest stress, and the final consonants are not doubled to form the present participles. In these examples, the syllables pronounced with the heaviest stress are underlined. For example:

InfinitivePresent Participle
to listen listening
to order ordering
to focus focusing
to limit limiting
If necessary, a dictionary can be consulted to determine which syllable of a verb has the heaviest stress. Many dictionaries use symbols such as apostrophes to indicate which syllables are pronounced with the heaviest stress.



It should be noted that British and American spelling rules differ for verbs which end in a single l preceded by a single vowel. In British spelling, the l is always doubled before the endings ing and ed
are added. However, in American spelling, verbs ending with a single l follow the same rule as other verbs; the l is doubled only when the last syllable has the heaviest stress. In the following examples, the syllables with the heaviest stress are underlined. For example:

InfinitivePresent Participle
American SpellingBritish Spelling
to signal signaling signalling
to travel traveling travelling
to compel compelling compelling
to propel propelling propelling
From these examples it can be seen that the American and British spellings for verbs ending in a single l differ only when the last syllable does not have the heaviest stress.


4. Questions and negative statements
a. Questions
In the Present Continuous, the verb to be acts as an auxiliary. As is the case with other English tenses, it is the auxiliary which is used to form questions and negative statements.

To form a question in the Present Continuous tense, the auxiliary is placed before the subject. For example:

Affirmative StatementQuestion
I am working. Am I working?
You are working. Are you working?
He is working. Is he working?
She is working. Is she working?
It is working. Is it working?
We are working. Are we working?
They are working. Are they working?


b. Negative statements
To form a negative statement, the word not is added after the auxiliary. For example:

Affirmative StatementNegative Statement
I am working. I am not working.
You are working. You are not working.
He is working. He is not working.
She is working. She is not working.
It is working. It is not working.
We are working. We are not working.
They are working. They are not working.


c. Negative questions
To form a negative question, the auxiliary is placed before the subject, and the word not is placed after the subject. However, when contractions are used, the contracted form of not follows immediately after the auxiliary. Although there is no universally accepted contraction for am not, the expression aren't I? is often used in spoken English. For example:

Without ContractionsWith Contractions
Am I not working? [Aren't I working?] - used in speaking
Are you not working? Aren't you working?
Is he not working? Isn't he working?
Is she not working? Isn't she working?
Is it not working? Isn't it working?
Are we not working? Aren't we working?
Are they not working? Aren't they working?

d. Tag questions
Tag questions are also formed using the auxiliary. In the following examples, the tag questions are underlined. In spoken English, aren't I? is often used as a tag question. For example:

Affirmative StatementAffirmative Statement with Tag Question
I am working. I am working, am I not?
You are working. You are working, aren't you?
He is working. He is working, isn't he?
She is working. She is working, isn't she?
It is working. It is working, isn't it?
We are working. We are working, aren't we?
They are working. They are working, aren't they?



5. Comparison of the uses of the simple present and present continuous
As pointed out in Chapter 1, the Simple Present tense may be used for stating general truths, and for referring to actions which occur at regular intervals. In the following examples, the verbs in the Simple Present tense are underlined.
e.g. Nova Scotia is a Canadian province. Geese fly south every winter.

In contrast, the Present Continuous tense is usually used to refer to ongoing actions happening at the time of speaking or writing. In the following examples, the verbs in the Present Continuous tense are underlined.
e.g. Right now, I am visiting the province of Nova Scotia. At the moment, a flock of geese is flying overhead.

______________ـــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــ
التوقيع لقوي ثامر
الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة اذهب الى الأسفل
معاينة صفحة البيانات الشخصي للعضو
 
The formation of the present co,tinuous/ Lesson
استعرض الموضوع السابق استعرض الموضوع التالي الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة 
صفحة 1 من اصل 1
 مواضيع مماثلة
-
» Connecting adverbs/Lesson

صلاحيات هذا المنتدى:لاتستطيع الرد على المواضيع في هذا المنتدى
أفـــضـــل البشــــــائر..من بوســــــــعادة :: المنتدى التعليمي :: التعليم الثانوي في الجزائر :: مادة الانجليزية-
انتقل الى: