أفـــضـــل البشــــــائر..من بوســــــــعادة

هذا المنتدى يهتم بالعلم والتدريس .المعلوماتية.الترفيه.وكل مافيه فائدة
 
الرئيسيةالبوابةاليوميةمكتبة الصورس .و .جالتسجيلقائمة الاعضاءالمجموعاتبحـثدخولالمكتـــبة

شاطر | 
 

 Indirect Speech/Lesson درس رائع في الكلام غير المباشر

استعرض الموضوع السابق استعرض الموضوع التالي اذهب الى الأسفل 
كاتب الموضوعرسالة
legouithameur
رئيس حكومة المنتدى
رئيس حكومة المنتدى


عدد الرسائل : 1146
العمر : 54
تاريخ التسجيل : 25/02/2008

مُساهمةموضوع: Indirect Speech/Lesson درس رائع في الكلام غير المباشر   الخميس مارس 20, 2008 11:35 pm

INDIRECT SPEECH



Present or future tense


If the introductory verb is in a present or future tense, the tense of the ‘main’ verb does not change.
Ex: Manel says, ‘I’ve broken a cup.’
Manel says that she has broken a cup.




Past simple


If the introductory verb is in the past simple, the ‘main’ verb changes as follows:

Direct speech > Indirect speech

present simple > past simple
present continuous > past continuous
present perfect simple > past perfect simple
present perfect continuous > past perfect continuous
past simple > past perfect simple
past continuous > past perfect continuous






Other tenses remain the same

past perfect simple and continuous, infinitive and gerund

1.Introductory verbs are followed by the conjunction that. (with say, tell, think and believe, that can be omitted) and tell only can be followed by an indirect object.

2.Personal pronouns are converted as required.

3.The imperative used in direct speech is converted to the infinitive (or negative infinitive) and the verb say must be converted to tell
She said to me, ‘Get in the car!’
She told me to get in the car.
They said to me, ‘Don’t go there by yourself!’
They told me not to go there by myself.

4.Other verbs are used in a similar way: + object + infinitive construction (to advise, to command, to order, to shout at/to somebody, to beg, to cry to somebody =to shout, to scream at somebody, to warn)

5.There is no change with improbable and impossible conditionals.
He said that if she came, he would give her the book. (improbable)
He said that if she had come, he would have given her the book. (impossible)
With probable conditionals, the present changes into the past, the future into the conditional:
He said, ‘If she comes, I will give her the book.’
He said that if she came, he would give her the book.

6. Certain adverbs of time change as follows

Direct speech > Indirect speech
yesterday > the day before/ the previous day
today > that day
tomorrow > the next day/ the following day
tonight > that night/ that evening
last week/ month/ year > the week/month/ year, … before/ the ........................................previous week/month/year
this week/month/ year, > that week/ month/ year, …
next week/ month, year > the following week/ month/ year, …
a week/month, year…ago > a/the week/month/year, … before/ ........................................the previous week/month/year, …

7.Some other adverbs and expressions change as follows:

here > there
now > then (usually omitted)
now (if stressed) > immediately
this > that (in expressions of time)
the (in other cases) > these
those (in expressions of time) > the (in other cases)
to come > to go

8. Conversion of questions to indirect speech

When converting questions to indirect speech, the interrogative form is not used. Questions with no interrogative pronoun, use whether or if after the introductory verb.
Dir: ‘Does he like eggs?’ she asked me.
Ind. She asked me whether/ if he liked eggs.
Questions with an interrogative pronoun, adjective or adverb take the same interrogative and place it after the introductory verb.
Dir. ‘Who drinks lots of tea?’ he asked
Ind. He asked who drank lots of tea.
Verbs introducing interrogative sentences are: to ask, to enquire, want to know, to wonder.

9. Certain auxiliary verbs change, but others do not

Direct speech > Indirect speech
can do > could do
may do > might do
must do > had to do
has/have to do > had to do
had to do > had had to do
could do > could do
might do > might do
could have done > could have done
might have done > might have done
must have done > must have done
had better do > had better do
would rather do > would rather do
should (=ought to) > should
ought to > ought to

10.If there are two statements or a statement and a question
mixed together, a separate introductory verb is required for each sentence in the indirect speech.
Dir. ‘Do you like peanut butter sandwiches?’ she asked me. ‘I’m sorry, but I can’t stand them.’
Ind. She asked me whether I liked peanut butter sandwiches, and I replied that I was sorry, but that I couldn’t stand them.



______________ـــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــ
التوقيع لقوي ثامر
الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة اذهب الى الأسفل
معاينة صفحة البيانات الشخصي للعضو
 
Indirect Speech/Lesson درس رائع في الكلام غير المباشر
استعرض الموضوع السابق استعرض الموضوع التالي الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة 
صفحة 1 من اصل 1
 مواضيع مماثلة
-
» Connecting adverbs/Lesson

صلاحيات هذا المنتدى:لاتستطيع الرد على المواضيع في هذا المنتدى
أفـــضـــل البشــــــائر..من بوســــــــعادة :: المنتدى التعليمي :: التعليم الثانوي في الجزائر :: مادة الانجليزية-
انتقل الى: